Danishmend and Seljuk Period

While the Great Seljuk army won the Malazgirt war in 1071, Sultan Alparslan’s high-rank commanders started the attacks against the Middle Anatolia. As a result of these attacks, Bizantyne sovereignity over Anatolia ended and, the commanders who did these conquests founded principalities (beylikler) independent in their internal affairs, after they had recieved the consent of the Seljuk State.
During this process, Amasya and its surrounding were conquered via Danishmend Ahmet Gazi also Turkish sovereignity started into the region. The battle which was held active 5th August 1101 between Amasya and Merzifon by the troops under the order of Seljuk Sultan Kılıç Arslan and Danishmend Gazi dispersed the Crusaders.
Danishmends’ sovereignity lasting intended about a century finished with the conquest of Amasya in 1175 by Seljuk Sultan II. Kılıç Arslan. As a result, the city of Amasya also its surrounding came beneath the Seljukian sovereignity.
throughout his long-lasting reign, II. Kılıç Arslan alloted the Seljuk State to his eleven sons also as a result of this allotement, Nizameddin Argunshah owned Amasya. Upon Nizameddin Argunshah’s brother, II. Rükneddin Süleyman shah’s getting hold of the Seljukian sovereignity, Amasya as many other places transformed into a province dependent active this sovereignity.
When the Mongolians became a threat, the Anatolian Seljuk king Alaeddin Keykubad gave various provinces to Harezm Beys as a fief (dirlik), so that he perhaps benefit from their experiences. Similarly, Amasya was imparted to Bereket Han as a fief in this period (1231).
After the reign of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad (1220-1237), the ill-management of the country caused various social disorders in the Seljuk State. Amasya-centred, Babailer Rebellion which occured in 637H/1239M was the first also foremost of all the social activities in this period.
At this rebellion beginning under the leadership of Baba İlyas Horasani, Baba Ishak Kefersudi launched the practical process of the activity in the village of Kefersud, also during these happenings relating to the rebellion, Amasya witnessed them as an important historic location.
As a result of the spread of the increasing rebellion, Sultan II. Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev withdrew to the Kubadabad Castle as a precaution and meanwhile Hadji Armaganshah who was appointed as Amasya Subaşı was ordered to suppress the Hadji Armaganshah movement.
In the end, Baba İlyas, who was the chief of the Babaîler Rebellion and was suppressed in a bloody method, and hanged in the ramparts of the Amasya Castle after being captured in his tekke via Hadji Armaganshah. When the Seljuk State was defeated by the Mongols into the Kösedağ Battle in 1243, the Mongols started to plunder almost each part of of Anatolia, which took more than a century and Amasya was one of the places to be affected.
The Mongols who invaded Anatolia settled in the Middle Anatolia Region where Amasya was also situated. These settlers were named ‘Tatar’ in general. In this period, those who settled in Amasya was previously Ca’unğar tribes, also known as gone-hand clans.
After the İlhanlı ruler Ebu alleged Bahadır Han died in 1335, Sultan Alaeddin Eratna founded the State of Eratna by declaring their independence by the assist of Sultan Alaeddin who was the general governer of Anatolia in İlhanlı period and Amasya came under the rule of the State of Eratna in 1341.
In the equal year, Amasya was captured by Taceddinoğlu Principality(beylik) whose centre was Niksar. Sultan Eratna reserved his silence for a while, but when he got the protection also the support of Eygpt-Memluk Sultan Melih Nasır, he sent Tüli Bey (one of his emirs) towards the invaders. As a effect, Tüli Bey recieved Amasya and its around back from Taceddin Doganshah by the help of the local people into Amasya, thereby ending this invasion.
In this term, Zeyneddin Tüli Bey was the Emir of Amasya, but following his death Hadji Kutlushah was appointed as the Emir in 1347. Then, Şahabeddin Ahmet Shah ,the eldest son of Hadji Kutlushah transformed into the Emir of Amasya in the middle of 1352.
By the year 1356, Kebir Sücaaddin Bey transformed into the Emir ,using his power. However, Şahabeddin Ahmet Shah got this mission back from him recurrently in 1358.
Şadgeldi Pasha, the other son of Hadji Kutlushah was appointed the Emir of Amasya into 1359; later in 1361 Alaaddin Ali Bey , the son of Sücaaddin Süleyman Bey became the Emir. However, in the wake of Kaynar incident, Hadji Şadgeldi Pasha was created himself the Emir of Amasya for the subsequent time.
As the sultans ruling the Province following Sultan Eratna were frail and indulged in pleasure and joy of existence, they caused their condition authority to lose influence and the administrators into charge to get the idea to gain their independence. During these years, the Emir of Amasya, Hadji Şadgeldi Pasha started to act on his own and later declared his own principality.
Durign the reign of Şadgeldi Pasha, considerable construction activities were carried out. Amasya Castle was restored into 1363 and the old minting factory was rebuilt; also then a paper factory was built. It is also known that various construction units such as mosque, medrese and imaret were built in this period.
Fahreddin Ahmet Bey was the son of Hadji Şadgeldi Pasha who died in the battle with Kadı Burhaneddin, the judge (kadı) of the State of Eratna into 1381. He became the Emir of Amasya. Like his father, Fahreddin Ahmet Bey was in a continuous struggle with Kadı Burhaneddin; however, because he perhaps not get anything since that struggle, he offered to give Amasya to the Ottomans in revert for another sanjak. after this exchange, the metropolis entered the Ottoman government in 1393.

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